In May 2012, Ministers representing a group of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) agreed to the Barbados Declaration, which included a declaration on renewable energy targets by Pacific Island Countries (PICs), seven of which declared an ambitious target to generate 100% of their electricity from renewable technologies. The Cook Islands, Niue and Tuvalu have set a goal of 100% renewable energy by 2020, and Fiji, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands for 100% renewable energy by 2030. Tokelau already achieved the target by 2012/2013. The process of transition to renewable energy generation is deeply rooted in the existing national and regional policies, plans and priorities of the PICs, as reflected in their national and regional energy policy documents. However, the case demonstrates the highest political willof se ven PICs to transition to 100% of their electricity generation from renewable energy technologies, exhibiting ambitious goals for renewable energy transition.
A coordinated and consultative approach at all levels (local, national and regional) was undertaken to remove barriers to the implementation of renewable energy plans in these countries. To ensure the implementation of the targets, the governments are seeking technical and financial support through ongoing regional activities and support from bilateral and multilateral finance channels. The country governments and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community aims to continue the momentum of meeting with these ambitious targets and to draw synergies with upcoming activities including the development of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and the preparation of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP): It has been set up by the governments and administrations of the Pacific region to lead the coordination of regional climate change policies and programmes through the Pacific Climate Change Roundtable, the Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change and the CROP CEOs Working Group on Climate Change. With donors, it develops partnerships for implementing adaptation and mitigation policies and programs in the region. It operates through a coordinated and consultative approach at all levels and across all relevant sectors at the national level.
Council of Regional Organisations of the Pacific Energy Working Group: Forum for coordinating energy-related activities within the members of PICs such as drafting of Pacific Islands Energy Policy and Plan, National Energy Policies and PIGGAREP.
Secretariat for the Pacific Community: A non-political party in existence since 1947, comprising of 22 PICs as members. The Secretariat helps PICs in addressing risks and impacts of climate variability and climate change in partnership with other members of the Council of Regional Organisations of the Pacific.
Department of Energy (DoE): Department of Energy in these seven countries were involved in con
ducting stakeholder consultations for renewable energy assessments to achieve RE targets.
Other institutions involved: Pacific Power Association, University of the South Pacific, Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat, and the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA): Provides technical expertise and knowledge sharing to PICs.
- The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Energy, Ecosystems for Sustainable Livelihoods Initiative;
- Asian Development Bank’s Energy for All Initiative;
- World Bank’s Energising the Pacific initiative;
- FAO’s Bio-energy and Food Security effort and those of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership;
- Global Climate Change Alliance Pacific Small Islands States Project funded by the EU;
- Global Renewable Energy Islands Network of IRENA aimed at bringing IRENA members together to share knowledge and experience on a number of activities organised around Pacific clusters;
- The University of the South Pacific, partner in Project DIREKT, the Small Developing Island Renewable Energy Knowledge and Technology Transfer Network, a collaboration between universities in Germany,
Fiji, Mauritius, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago who are all working to raise the level of scientific expertise in Pacific small island developing nations.
- Development Aid: Renewable energy investments in PICs have been largely funded by development aid from Denmark, China, European Union, New Zealand, Australia, UAE and Japan (Pacific Environment Community Fund).
- Multilateral Funding: From the Global Environment Facility (GEF) implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Asian Development Bank.
- Budgetary Allocation: Comprises a small component of overall finance needs for RE transition in the seven PICs.
- Equipment donations: Supporting organisations, developed countries and the Council of Regional Organisations of the Pacific agencies have provided equipment for many rural standalone systems and more recently also for larger grid-connected systems.
- SIDS DOCK: The SIDS DOCK programme facilitates funding through a combination of sources including the SIDS themselves (government, private sector and social organisations) and the global private sector and development partners.