Since 2004, the Brazilian government has been implementing the Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Amazon (PPCDAm) aimed at reducing illegal cutting of forests and based on a three pillared strategy which includes: (i) territorial and land-use planning, (ii) environmental control and monitoring, and (iii) fostering sustainable production activities.
Dozens of government agencies were deployed to tackle what seemed to be an uncontrollable problem. The PPCDAm is led by 13 ministries initially under the direct coordination of the Executive Office of the Presidency, and more recently transferred to the Ministry of Environment. For ten consecutive years, over 200 measures were implemented in the region, including: creation of protected areas, demarcation of indigenous lands, battling corruption in government agencies and companies, combating "illegal occupation" of public land (land grabbing), transparency in environmental monitoring, involving different police forces, and improvement of satellite monitoring systems.
As a result of these measures, deforestation has fallen significantly in the Brazilian Amazon. While in 2004 annual forest loss reached 27,700 km2, by 2012 this figure had been reduced to 4,500 km2, representing a reduction of almost 84%, despite the continued growth in agricultural production in the Northern region (see diagram below).
Executive Office of the Presidency was responsible for coordinating the PPCDAm (until 2013). Other institutions involved include:
- Ministry of Environment (MMA);
- Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA);
- Ministry of Justice (MJ);
- Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA);
- Ministry of National Integration (MI), Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI); Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management (MPOG);
- Ministry of Finance (MF);
- National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA);
- Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA);
- Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBIO);
- Brazilian Forest (SFB);
- National Institute for Space Research (INPE);
- Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA);
- National Foundation to Support the Indigenous (FUNAI).
Resources for implementing PPCDAm come in large majority from the national budget. Further international cooperation resources from Germany (implemented by KfW and GIZ), Norway (Fundo Amazônia), European Commission and international bodies, such as the GEF.
- Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME);
- Ministry of Labour and Employment (MTE);
- Ministry of Transport (MT);
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MRE);
- Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture (MPA);
- Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency of the Republic (GSN);
- Federal Police;
- Federal Highway Police;
- State Police;
- Brazilian Army;
- National Security Force (FNS);
- Ministry of Defence (MD);
- Strategic Affairs Secretariat (SAE),
- Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia, Mato Grosso, Pará, Tocantins, Maranhão, Amapá and Roraima State Government Municipalities.