Mexico is the first developing country to have implemented a climate change law. Approved in 2012, and based on several years of experience in the field, the law provides a climate change policy framework and sets the ground for (1) the establishment of an institutional arrangement, involving all relevant stakeholders and levels (national and subnational) in a national climate change system composed of several entities that promote participation and articulation among them; (2) the development of climate planning tools like a climate change strategy and a climate change programme; (3) the creation of a climate fund; (4) the promotion of policy instruments including a carbon tax and establishing carbon market based approaches; and (5) the roles of evaluation and follow-up of climate action in the country.
The current Special Programme on Climate Change (PECC), for the period 2014–2018, includes 23 quantified mitigation measures at the federal level that will lead to a reduction in emissions of 83 MtCO 2 e in 2018 compared to the baseline.
In particular, the General Climate Change Law is groundbreaking. It paved the way for an institutional and policy response to climate change, which is considered good practice, given its comprehensiveness, political leadership and integrated approach involving different levels of government.
The Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT): In charge of coordination the national climate change policies and of developing, together with other federal secretariats, mitigation and adaptation activities.
The National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change (INECC): Created as part of the General Climate Change Law (on the basis of the existing National Institute of Ecology), INECC is in charge of generating and integrating the technical and scientific knowledge and strengthening human resources and capacities for the formulation, implementation and evaluation of public policies for mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
Inter-secretarial Commission on Climate Change: Reinstalled by the General Climate Change Law, this Commission integrates 14 Ministries involved in mitigation and adaptation policy and actions.
Various agencies support the development and implementation of specific elements of the Mexican climate policy, including:
There is a specific annex to the national budget that is assigned to climate change actions. In addition, to support specific components of the Mexican climate policy, international organisations such as the World Bank, through its Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR), the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) and, in the near future, the Green Climate Fund (GCF) offer international cooperation.
- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), e.g. support of
the process by the Mexican-German Climate Change Allicance;
- Low Emission Capacity Building (LECB) Programme implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on behalf of the European Commission, the BMUB, The Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency and AusAID;
- Danish Energy Agency;
- Spanish Agency for Cooperation;
- British Government;