Africa's leadership on LEDS
Case StudyDesign and implementation of a climate resilient green economy strategy
The Ethiopia Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Strategy was published in 2011, based on the vision set by the late Prime Minister Meles Zenawi. The vision is for Ethiopia to develop a climate-resilient green economy and to attain middle-income status by 2025. The country plans to follow a green economy pathway that fosters sustainable development.
The CRGE is based on four pillars: agriculture; forestry; power; and transport, industrial sectors and infrastructure. The CRGE strategy adopts a sectoral approach across six government ministries with more than sixty initiatives to be implemented. An estimated USD 150 billion is required to deliver this over a period of twenty years. The green growth pathway envisages limiting national greenhouse gas emission levels to 150 MtCO2e instead of 400 MtCO2e/a in 2030 under business as usual (BAU) scenario.
The CRGE has facilitated the setting of national targets, the creation of a dedicated financing facility, registry and MRV system, the identification of sixty sectoral initiatives and is setting an example to neighbouring African nations and other countries internationally as an early example of a national green growth strategy.
Case StudyCollaborating to align data, information and mitigation actions
With an economic and development model closely linked to fossil fuel use, Tunisia’s growth in recent decades has led to a marked increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Recognising the need to address climate change, the country has proceeded to pursue various strategies, plans and activities to promote renewable energy and climate protection while at the same time pursuing development goals such as modernising industry, creating jobs, improving quality of life and supporting international climate change mitigation efforts.
This case provides a good example of the development of well-linked national climate change strategy, NAMAs and supporting MRV arrangements. In particular, efforts to collaborate across sectors and government ministries to share data and develop effective use of information to support national inventory, NAMA development and MRV are noteworthy.
Case StudyPrioritising mitigation and adaptation options as part of the development of a National Climate Change Action Plan
Throughout 2011-12 the government of Kenya undertook a prioritisation process to identify actions to deliver its National Climate Change Response Strategy published in 2010. The process resulted in the Kenyan National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) and included specific mitigation and adaptation challenges to be incorporated into the climate related policies, plans and strategies of national institutions in Kenya.
The prioritisation process within the NCCAP was aligned to national development strategies combining a long-term vision with medium-term policy goals and mechanisms. It demonstrates an effective process for incorporating assessments of climate vulnerability and mitigation potential into national development objectives in an inclusive multi-stakeholder decision-making process.
Crucial to the success of the process was the strong commitment and leadership from the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources (MEMR), comprehensive stakeholder participation, the involvement of key ministries, together with a local validation process and a transparent approach to analysis.
Case StudyGhana's integrated resources and resilience planning program
The electrification rate in Ghana is 30% (and 50% in rural areas) and the government has a goal of adding 10% renewable energy sources by 2020. Ghana has an over-reliance on hydropower and is therefore vulnerable to climate change related fluctuations in water resources. An overview of the major barriers to further expanding the power sector reveals several significant handicaps: subsidized power and low tariffs leading to financial issues, high transmission and infrastructure requirements and an over-reliance on hydro and gas as a resource.
In partnership with USAID and the International Climate Fund, Ghana has implemented a pilot project in integrated resource and resilience planning strategies to evaluate the best strategy to boost their grid resilience.
Characteristics of the integrated resource and resilience planning strategies are; long term planning (up to 30 years), policy considerations, social/environmental factor considerations, stakeholder engagement and risk assessment. In Ghana, an understanding of the risk associated with variations in the hydropower resources was crucial. By evaluating key risk factors like fuel prices (and availability), changes to power generation resources due to climatic issues, changes in energy regulations and policy, population growth and major economic changes - the robustness of the power sector can be tested. Therefore, leading to a least-regret strategy (or strategies) for increasing power sector resilience.
An understanding of the risk associated with variations in the hydropower resources was crucial to Ghana and can lead to correcting and optimization of hydro resource portfolio. Furthermore, this analysis has lead to a clearer understanding of the power sector resilience with population growth and variations in demand.
Case StudyTanzania’s integrated resources and resilience planning program
Currently the electrification rate is Tanzania is 30% (can be as low is 11% in rural areas) and the government has a goal of 75% electrification by 2035. This is an estimated addition of 60 million new electricity users. Some of the major barriers to better energy planning and performance include lack of supporting policy and regulations and the need for significant infrastructure improvements; thus, highlights the strong need for enhanced planning in the power sector and understanding the resilience of the grid to these stressors. Taking into account the risk associated with climate changes into project identification, planning and implementation are key components to maximizing resilience of the power sector. Recently, the USAID along with the International Climate Fund have boosted the integrated resource planning strategy to integrated resource and resilience planning strategies. This now includes planning for resilience of the power sector for climate change, scenario-based resilience analysis, evaluating the incorporation of future energy sources into the power sector and evaluating the demand-side strategies of emerging technologies. This case study is a pilot project of implementing this power sector planning strategy in Tanzania. Capacity building and technical assistance for several Tanzanian organizations will be the greatest impact from this.
A few key defining characteristics of the integrated resource and resilience planning strategies are; long term planning (up to 30 years), policy considerations, social/environmental factor considerations, stakeholder engagement and risk assessment. Some of the key risk factors that are taken into consideration are fuel prices (and availability), changes to power generation resources due to climatic issues, changes in energy regulations and policy, population growth and major economic changes, technology changes and cost, and natural and man-made disasters. By evaluating the robustness of the power sector to each of these factors, a least-regret strategy (or strategies) will be recommended. A collection of such strategies, will lead to the most resilient plan that can work across multiple scenarios.
This approach is a key low emission development strategy, especially in the case of climate-resilient power planning and has projected to lead to several improvements in Tanzania. One of the main improvements will be in the increased in-house capacity among Tanzania’s stakeholders for better load forecasting, planning and implementation. In line with this plan, training tools will be implemented among the crucial energy sector stakeholders, the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, Tanzania Electric Supply Company and others. The resilience planning also includes increased coordination among the stakeholders to develop short, medium and long term implementation of policy reforms, risk management and coordination plans with the government.
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