Kenya's leadership on LEDS
Case StudyPrioritising mitigation and adaptation options as part of the development of a National Climate Change Action Plan
Development of NCCAP including identifying priority actions through stakeholder consultation, analysis and alignment with broader development goals.
Throughout 2011-12 the government of Kenya undertook a prioritisation process to identify actions to deliver its National Climate Change Response Strategy published in 2010. The process resulted in the Kenyan National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) and included specific mitigation and adaptation challenges to be incorporated into the climate related policies, plans and strategies of national institutions in Kenya. The prioritisation process within the NCCAP was aligned to national development strategies combining a long-term vision with medium-term policy goals and mechanisms. It demonstrates an effective process for incorporating assessments of climate vulnerability and mitigation potential into national development objectives in an inclusive multi-stakeholder decision-making process. Crucial to the success of the process was the strong commitment and leadership from the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources (MEMR), comprehensive stakeholder participation, the involvement of key ministries, together with a local validation process and a transparent approach to analysis.
Case StudyKenya’s payment-for-watershed services for sustainable land management
Assessing Kenya’s Tana River Basin's use of payment-for-watershed services for sustainable land management.
Background Payments for Watershed Services is a methodology by which a market economy in created for services that relate to protecting ecosystems. For communities surrounding a river basin, this approach rewards upstream water users such as farmers for adopting techniques that protect the water supply and quality for downstream users. Hydropower plants are down stream water users that benefit immensely from this approach. A specific type of the payment program that is mentioned in this case study is called “Green Water Credits”. Kenya’s Tana River Basin spans more than a 17,000 km2 area and a large population of farmers (~150,000) utilize this resource. The Green Water Credits program is centralized with themes of sustainable land management techniques that upstream farmers are encouraged to utilize, and the results of this pilot study would embolden implementation of this program in the Tana River Basin area. Actions profiled Sustainable land management techniques utilized include terracing, mulching and agroforestry. The benefits to downstream users are reduction in damaging runoff/sedimentation and increase in groundwater recharge and flow quantities. The benefits of this program are wide spread, primarily in hydropower, irrigation, and water supply. Outcomes The projected savings is ~12-95 million USD each year compared to an annual cost of 2-20 million USD in implementing the proper land management practices. It was shown that even with a 20% adaptation of proper land management strategies, a 10-fold return on investment is projected where the cost of 0.5-4.3 million USD can yield a benefit of 6-48 million USD. It is expected that about 50% of this savings is due to reduced siltation and water flow issues that affect hydropower plants. Reduced siltation decreases the wear and tear cost of the hydropower turbines and thereby also reduces the cost of maintenance for the hydropower plants. Managing downstream water flow via proper upstream land management techniques, preventing extremely high or low flow, can also lead to increased efficiencies in hydropower generation.
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