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The role of agriculture, forestry, and other land use in national policy in Asia


This report, from our Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) Working Group, analyzes how low emission development strategies (LEDS) for AFOLU are included in the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) and national development strategies of seven countries in Asia: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

Agriculture, forestry, and other land use represents 20–24% of global greenhouse gas emissions, the largest emitting sector next to energy. The Paris Agreement formally recognizes the role of the AFOLU sector in climate change mitigation and states that all Parties should take action to conserve and enhance greenhouse gas sinks and reservoirs. The AFOLU sector is particularly important in Asia, which accounted for the largest proportion of global AFOLU emissions during 1990–2010. Understanding the relationship between current treatment of AFOLU in INDCs and national planning, and the amount of emissions from the AFOLU sector in Asia, can help inform policymakers about the current role of AFOLU in limiting global temperature rise to 2°C above pre-industrial levels.

By identifying the role of low emission development strategies in the seven countries chosen, this paper produces a picture of each country’s intended plans and contribution of emission reductions through its AFOLU sector, which is then compared to the country’s emissions profile. The paper outlines opportunities for additional mitigation efforts along with a broader discussion on finance, with third party estimates of costs and financing instruments given when available.

Key messages

  • This paper reviews LEDS for AFOLU in seven countries in Asia: Bangladesh, Cambodia,
    India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
  • AFOLU is a key contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the selected countries and
    is included in all seven countries’ national socioeconomic development, climate change,
    and green growth strategies and plans.
  • INDCs do not comprehensively include AFOLU mitigation targets.
  • In both national plans and INDCs, agriculture emission reduction targets and measures
    are not as well-covered as those in forestry.
  • Most countries indicate in their INDCs that they require international support in the form
    of finance, technology, and capacity building, while some also state estimated costs and
    the level of support required.
  • None of the INDCs reviewed explicitly mentions the role of private sector sustainability
    commitments or financial services in reducing emissions.
  • There may be scope for increasing the mitigation contribution from AFOLU, but more work
    is needed to help refine—and in some cases enhance—a number of countries’ mitigation
    contributions from AFOLU.

Read the full key messages in the main report, ‘Role of agriculture, forestry, and other land use mitigation in INDCs and national policy in Asia‘.

Photo:  UN Photo/Kibae Park, Flickr