Mexico is the first developing country to have implemented a climate change law. Approved in 2012, and based on several years of experience in the field, the law provides a climate change policy framework and sets the ground for (1) the establishment of an institutional arrangement, involving all relevant stakeholders and levels (national and subnational) in a national climate change system composed of several entities that promote participation and articulation among them; (2) the development of climate planning tools like a climate change strategy and a climate change programme; (3) the creation of a climate fund; (4) the promotion of policy instruments including a carbon tax and establishing carbon market based approaches; and (5) the roles of evaluation and follow-up of climate action in the country.
The current Special Programme on Climate Change (PECC), for the period 2014–2018, includes 23 quantified mitigation measures at the federal level that will lead to a reduction in emissions of 83 MtCO 2 e in 2018 compared to the baseline.
In particular, the General Climate Change Law is groundbreaking. It paved the way for an institutional and policy response to climate change, which is considered good practice, given its comprehensiveness, political leadership and integrated approach involving different levels of government.
The Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT): In charge of coordination the national climate change policies and of developing, together with other federal secretariats, mitigation and adaptation activities.
The National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change (INECC): Created as part of the General Climate Change Law (on the basis of the existing National Institute of Ecology), INECC is in charge of generating and integrating the technical and scientific knowledge and strengthening human resources and capacities for the formulation, implementation and evaluation of public policies for mitigation and adaptation to climate change.
Inter-secretarial Commission on Climate Change: Reinstalled by the General Climate Change Law, this Commission integrates 14 Ministries involved in mitigation and adaptation policy and actions.
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