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Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) 

Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) is an online tool for assessing transnational strategies that reduce emissions of multiple air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) at least costs, and minimize their negative effects on human health, ecosystems, and climate change.

GAINS estimates historic emissions of ten air pollutants and six GHGs based on data from international energy and industrial statistics, emission inventories, and on data supplied by countries themselves. It assesses emissions on a medium-term time horizon, with projections being specified in five-year intervals through the year 2050. GAINS estimates for each country/region the potential emission reductions that are offered by about 2,000 specific emission control measures and their costs.

Key questions addressed:

  • What is the overall impact (health and ecosystem) of multiple energy policies?
  • What are the costs and benefits of alternative emission control strategies based on the various sources?
  • What is the cost-optimal allocation of emission reductions in order to achieve a specific deposition level, concentration target, or GHG emission ceiling?

Sample data inputs:

  • Base year
  • End year
  • Gross domestic product
  • Discount rate
  • Population
  • Base year data on energy consumption, transport, industry and agriculture

Sample quantitative outputs:

  • Emission inventories, emission projections and control costs for air pollutants (SO2, NOX, VOC, PM, NH3)
  • Emission inventories and emission projections for greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O and the F‐gases),
  • Human health damages
  • Health and environmental impacts
  • Control measures that need to be implemented in various policy scenarios, including cost‐efficient solutions

Access Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS).


GAINS methodology

Presentation with case studies on Europe, China and India

GAINS Asia scenarios for cost-effective control of air pollution and greenhouse gases in China.

Tool Summary

  • Free
Expertise Required:
  • Advanced
Geographic Scope:
  • National
  • Sectoral
  • Policy
  • Project
Impacts Assessed:
  • Economic
    • General
  • Environmental
    • Air
    • Greenhouse Gases
  • Social
    • Public Health