The Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES) model

3pm, September 30th, 2015

The Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES) is a bottom-up model generator that uses linear-programming to produce a least-cost energy system, optimized according to a number of user constraints, over medium to long-term time horizons.

The model generator combines two systematic approaches to modeling energy: a technical engineering approach and an economic approach. The model encompasses all the steps from primary resources through the chain of processes that transform, transport, distribute and convert energy into the supply of energy services demanded by energy consumers.

Once all the inputs, constraints and scenarios have been put in place, the model will attempt to solve and determine the energy system that meets the energy service demands over the entire time horizon at least cost.

Key questions addressed:

  • What energy services can I provide at a minimum global cost?

Sample data inputs:

  • End-use energy service demands by region
  • Existing stock of energy related equipment by sector
  • Characteristics of available future technologies
  • Present and future sources of primary energy supply and their potentials

Sample quantitative outputs:

  • Energy system configurations
  • Energy flows
  • Energy commodity prices
  • GHG emissions
  • Capacities of technologies
  • Energy costs
  • Marginal emissions abatement costs


TIMES documentation

Evaluation of energy system forecasting and GHG emission models in the LEAD countries.

Institutions Involved

  • International Energy Agency (IEA)
Links for Resource