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Resource guide for NDC finance

Selecting effective financial instruments to support action on climate change

This low emission development strategies (LEDS) Finance Resource Guide presents a curated selection of resources on a range of topics around finance for LEDS and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). It is designed to help LEDS practitioners find high-quality resources that meet their specific needs, avoiding time-consuming searches on the internet. It will be useful to individuals working on, or interested in, LEDS and NDC finance in both developed and developing countries.

Download the full pdf version of this guide.

Related resources

Taxes and incentives for renewable energy

Organization(s):KPMG

  • Taxes and tax incentives

This report provides a useful summary of tax and non-tax incentives in use in 31 countries, which may be helpful for developing country policymakers who wish to see which incentive measures are being used in other countries, as a starting point for comparative analysis. For further information on this report see 5.1.

Guidance for NAMA design in the context of NDCs: A tool to realize GHG mitigation under NDCs (Chapter 7 Quantifying the Impact of NAMAs: pp. 55–70)

Organization(s):UNDP/UNEP DTU/UNFCCC

  • Measuring, reporting and verification

This guide, updated in 2016, aims to support developing countries in the NAMA development and implementation process by providing guidance and good practices on the key aspects of NAMAs, and provide insights on how NAMAs may support NDCs. For further information on this tool see Featured resources in section 6.

MRV 101: Understanding measurement, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation

Organization(s):WRI

  • Measuring, reporting and verification

This introductory paper aims to clarify the different types of MRV relevant to climate mitigation. It covers three types—MRV of emissions; of mitigation actions; and of support. MRV of mitigation actions, covered in section 2.2 of the paper, is most relevant here. The publication is aimed at national decision makers and practitioners from environmental and development organizations with no or little prior knowledge. It does not provide detailed guidance on implementing each type of MRV, nor does it cover monitoring and evaluation of adaptation efforts. The aim is that this paper will enhance understanding of the landscape of MRV, the ways in which different types of MRV fulfill particular needs and utilize respective methodologies, and the synergies among them.

Financing Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions

Organization(s):UNEP DTU

  • Making projects financeable

This primer is devoted to the financing of NAMAs and presents essential principles and models of financing. It highlights challenges in financing the policies and programs that make up NAMAs, as well as possible ways to overcome these challenges. The guide’s four sections cover defining NAMA finance, sources of NAMA finance, instruments, and leveraging finance for NAMAs. Although focused on NAMAs, the content of this guide would be very applicable to the design of any mitigation project that requires a robust financing strategy (such as Green Climate Fund projects).

Guidance for NAMA design in the context of NDCs: A tool to realize GHG mitigation under NDCs (Chapter 5 How to structure NAMA financing: pp. 29–44)

Organization(s):UNDP/UNEP DTU/UNFCCC

  • Making projects financeable

This guide, updated in 2016, aims to support developing countries in the NAMA development and implementation process by providing guidance and good practices on the key aspects of NAMAs, and provide insights on how NAMAs may support NDCs. For further information on this tool see Featured resources in this section.

Understanding ‘bankability’ and unlocking climate finance for climate compatible development

Organization(s):CDKN

  • Making projects financeable

This CDKN Working Paper focuses on understanding the concept of ‘bankability’ in support of the development of quality ‘bankable’ project proposals – to assist countries’ access to international climate finance. It was developed by CDKN in response to the observation that many countries are struggling to develop strong funding proposals that are ‘bankable’, and are struggling to understand what ‘bankability’ means for different funders in different contexts. The paper was informed by the experience of CDKN’s climate finance-related support across Africa, Latin America and Asia.

Designing NAMAs to catalyze bankable low carbon investments

Organization(s):CCAP/NCI/UNEP DTU

  • Making projects financeable

This policy brief looks at how to develop NAMAs or other mitigation projects that are ‘bankable’—that is, something that a bank or other financier is willing to finance. It proposes three main elements for making projects bankable and explores each of these: improving policy and institutional frameworks; addressing financial risks and returns; and identifying projects and demonstrating feasibility. This brief, written by leading NAMA finance experts, is a useful introduction to this topic.

From theory to practice: Understanding transformational change in NAMAs

Organization(s):UNEP DTU/Wuppertal Institute

  • Impact and transformational change

This concept paper proposes an operational definition of what transformational change means in the context of NAMAs, taking into consideration ongoing discussions among NAMA experts. Section 1 of the paper (5 pp) provides a useful exploration of the key aspects of transformational change in the context of NAMAs; the review of theoretical approaches in section 2 may be less relevant for LEDS practitioners and policymakers.

Potential for transformational change

Organization(s):NAMA Facility

  • Impact and transformational change

Several funders require evidence of ‘transformational change’ in the projects they fund (the Green Climate Fund refers to this as paradigm shift). Being a rather new concept, this term is often poorly understood. The NAMA Facility was one of the first funders to use the term transformational change, and this factsheet offers insights on its understanding of what constitutes transformational change in the context of sustainable low emission development.

Framework for measuring sustainable development in NAMAs

Organization(s):UNEP DTU/IISD

  • Impact and transformational change

This paper proposes a framework for measuring the sustainable development impacts of NAMAs. While the framework (see section 4.4 of the paper) is quite conceptual in nature, it provides a useful high-level approach to inform thinking about how broader impacts should be considered in NAMA development. It also offers guidance to specific tools and resources that may help. The template in the Annex provides a useful and comprehensive list of potential broader impacts across four dimensions—environmental, social, economic, and institutional.

The co-benefits of climate change mitigation

Organization(s):UNECE

  • Impact and transformational change

This introductory brief describes how mitigation actions can have benefits that go beyond greenhouse gas emissions reduction, and presents some high level estimates of the significance of these benefits. Including information on these broader impacts can make project funding proposals more compelling (some funders may actually require such information).

Greenhouse Gas Protocol Policy and Action Standard: An accounting and reporting standard for estimating the greenhouse gas effects of policies and actions

Organization(s):WRI

  • Impact and transformational change,
  • Measuring, reporting and verification

The Policy and Action Standard provides a standardized approach for estimating and reporting the change in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from policies and actions. The primary intended users are analysts and policymakers considering or designing government policies and actions at any level: national, state, provincial, or municipal. The Standard was designed to help users estimate the greenhouse gas effects of planned policies and actions to inform decision making, monitor progress of implemented policies and actions, and retrospectively evaluate greenhouse gas effects to learn from experience.

Accessing international financing for climate change mitigation—A guidebook for developing countries. TNA Guidebook Series

Organization(s):UNEP/GEF

  • General resources

This guidebook provides information to help developing countries identify and access financial resources for their mitigation activities. Chapter 5 addresses the key elements of program and project proposals, and provides some guidelines for proposal preparation. This chapter provides a useful overview of the different sections of a project proposal and what needs to be covered in each section. The target audience is national experts, consultants, and government agencies within developing countries’ technology needs assessment teams, including a broad range of stakeholders from government institutions, nongovernment organizations, and the private sector.

IRENA handbook on renewable energy Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)

Organization(s):IRENA

  • General resources

This handbook presents guidance on NAMA project development for renewable energy experts and policymakers, which can be used to support renewable energy deployment in developing countries. It discusses the NAMA concept and its relevance to renewable energy, considers typical barriers and how NAMAs can address them, explores financing options, and outlines the NAMA development process. The final chapter contains detailed case studies of renewable energy NAMAs in Chile, Mexico, and Tunisia.

GIZ NAMA tool: Steps for moving a NAMA from idea towards implementation

Organization(s):GIZ

  • General resources

This tool provides developers and implementers of NAMA projects with brief, step by step instructions on how to develop a NAMA, updated in 2016 to reflect the links between NAMAs and NDCs. Most if not all of the content is relevant to any mitigation project where international financial support is desired. The process is structured into 10 steps designed to help practitioners work through the stages necessary to develop a good project, and to supply users with data, publications, and tools relevant for certain aspects of developing a NAMA. Also available in French and Spanish.

Guidance for NAMA design in the context of NDCs: A tool to realize GHG mitigation under NDCs

Organization(s):UNDP/UNEP DTU/UNFCCC

  • Developing good projects,
  • General resources

This guide, updated in 2016, aims to support developing countries in the NAMA development and implementation process by providing guidance and good practices on the key aspects of NAMAs, and provide insights on how NAMAs may support NDCs. The guide includes the policy framework; potential types of action; financing; institutional arrangements; the roles of different actors; and measuring, reporting, and verification procedures. It also provides guidance on best practice and other practical advice for those faced with the task of developing a NAMA, especially in the context of an NDC. While focused on NAMAs, much of the guidance will be relevant to the development of any ambitious mitigation project and the link to NDCs.

Effective carbon rates: Pricing CO2 through taxes and emissions trading systems

Organization(s):OECD

  • Carbon pricing

This detailed report from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development presents the first comprehensive analysis of the extent to which countries use carbon prices. Chapter 2 (6 pp) discusses why carbon prices are an effective and low cost policy tool, exploring the environmental effectiveness of carbon prices and why they allow countries to reach their emissions targets in the cheapest possible way, as well as looking at the economic benefits of carbon pricing. Chapter 4 presents the results of the analysis of effective carbon rates in 41 (mainly OECD) economies.

State and trends of carbon pricing 2016

Organization(s):World Bank/Ecofys/Vivid Economics

  • Carbon pricing

This report provides an up to date overview of existing and emerging carbon pricing instruments around the world, including national and subnational initiatives. It presents summary information on the level of coverage of the schemes and the prices prevailing in them. Section 2.3 describes developments in national and subnational schemes; section 3 focuses on the importance of aligning carbon pricing with the broader policy landscape. The analysis provides lessons for policymakers on how to maximize synergies between climate mitigation and other related policies while managing potential tensions and trade offs. This report is a useful and up to date summary of the state of carbon pricing around the world.

The FASTER principles for successful carbon pricing: An approach based on initial experience

Organization(s):World Bank/OECD

  • Carbon pricing

This report draws on a growing base of global experience in implementing carbon pricing mechanisms, as well as economic literature, to identify a set of principles—the FASTER principles—for successfully steering an economy towards the long term goal of decarbonization through the use of carbon pricing. It focuses on how to achieve this in a fair and transparent way that harnesses emission reduction opportunities at least cost, provides flexibility, and is aligned with other policies. It focuses on domestic carbon pricing mechanisms that put an explicit price on greenhouse gas emissions—whether through taxes or emissions trading systems. Throughout the report, brief case study examples are given to show how the principles are being used in different countries.

Putting a price on carbon: Reducing emissions

Organization(s):WRI

  • Carbon pricing

Although written to explore the impact on the USA of a national carbon price, this issue paper provides a useful and clear explanation of how carbon pricing leads to reduced emissions and investment in low carbon technology development and deployment, including from an economic perspective. The paper describes how and when emission reductions from a national carbon price are likely to take place in key sectors, showing for example that a strong carbon price will be transformative in the electricity sector, where systems are in place to shift production away from high carbon fuels when it becomes cost effective to do so, but more gradual in other sectors such as transport. This paper will be a useful resource for policymakers interested in how carbon pricing works.

The bottom line on carbon taxes

Organization(s):WRI

  • Carbon pricing

Climate policy debates often feature discussions about the role of a carbon tax, either as an alternative or as a supplement to a cap and trade program. This factsheet describes the similarities and differences between the two policy approaches and answers other common questions about a tax on carbon.

Cap and trade: The basics

Organization(s):IETA

  • Carbon pricing

This one page summary explains the basics of how emissions trading works, what sectors are typically covered, how entities comply with trading schemes, and which countries have implemented trading schemes.

The Mirrlees Review, Volume 1: Dimensions of Tax Design. (Chapter 5. Environmental Taxes)

Organization(s):IFS

  • Taxes and tax incentives

The Mirrlees Review was an extremely comprehensive review of the design of a good tax system. This chapter provides an overview of key economic issues in the use of taxation as environmental policy. Sections 5.2–5.4 discuss the economic principles of environmental taxation, reviewing the arguments for using taxes and other market mechanisms in environmental policy, the efficient design of environmental taxes, and the fiscal value of the revenue contribution from environmental taxes. Sections 5.5–5.8 apply these principles to four specific environmental tax areas—energy, road transport, aviation, and household waste.

Environmental taxation: A guide for policy makers

Organization(s):OECD

  • Taxes and tax incentives

This policy guide introduces the use of taxes to achieve environmental outcomes. It outlines why countries might consider using environmental taxes (rather than, for example, subsidies), and then explores some principles for how to design effective environmental taxes, including defining the target and scope of the tax, and setting the rate. It also briefly covers how the revenues raised can be used, and how to overcome obstacles to implementing environmental taxes.

Providing incentives for investments in renewable energy: Advice for policymakers

Organization(s):World Bank

  • Taxes and tax incentives

This note provides a basic introduction to the use of incentives to support renewable energy investments. It is included here because it considers some general principles of when to use tax and nontax incentives, and outlines the main types of tax incentive (p. 3). The note briefly explores how tax and nontax incentives can be combined, and presents a short case study on how Spain combined tax and nontax incentives for renewable energy.

Fiscal policy: Green economy briefing paper

Organization(s):UNEP

  • Taxes and tax incentives

This short briefing paper provides a basic introduction to the role of fiscal policy in the transition to greener economies, in particular the use of environmental taxes. It also briefly covers energy subsidy reform and introduces some lessons learned from experience of fiscal policy reform so far.

Feed-in tariffs as a policy instrument for promoting renewable energies and green economies in developing countries

Organization(s):UNEP

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

This report is intended as a resource for policymakers in developing countries to make informed policy decisions about the ‘whether,’ ‘when,’ and ‘how’ of feed-in tariffs and to support nationally appropriate policy measures to scale up renewable energy. It also aims to improve understanding of the potential benefits and challenges for developing countries in designing feed-in tariffs, as well as the factors influencing their success. The report also analyzes the funding and capacity implications. Rather than identifying a set of rigid best practices, it attempts to outline the range of possible designs that developing country policymakers may wish to pursue, and to identify the different drivers that may guide their decisions. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of feed-in tariff policies and design elements, and compares them with other instruments; chapter 3 provides guidance on drafting feed-in tariff laws; chapter 4 explores how to fund feed-in tariff policy; and chapter 5 examines the human, technological, regulatory, and institutional capacity needed to implement such policies.

Renewable energy auctions: A guide to design. Volumes 2–6.

Organization(s):IRENA/CEM

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

More detail on the specific design elements of auctions is available in five further volumes: Volume 2 Renewable energy policies and auctions; and Volumes 3–6 on Auction design: 3 Demand; 4 Qualification requirements; 5 Winner selection process; 6 Sellers’ liabilities.

Renewable energy auctions: A guide to design. Volume 1. Summary for policymakers

Organization(s):IRENA/CEM

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

This guidebook assists policymakers in understanding different approaches to renewable energy auctions. It includes some specific country experiences, representing different contexts and circumstances, and offers lessons learned and best practices on how governments can design and implement auctions to meet their objectives. Chapter 2 of the guidebook contextualizes auctions within the larger realm of renewable energy support schemes, and gives an overview of their key strengths and weaknesses. Chapters 3–6 cover four key design elements of auctions—demand, qualification requirements, winner selection, and sellers’ liabilities.

Feed-in tariffs: Good practices and design considerations

Organization(s):Clean Energy Solutions Centre/NREL

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

This policy brief introduces the topic of feed-in tariffs, covering key design elements and good practices, and lessons from country experience. The references section lists further resources on policy design for feed-in tariffs, and experience. The information in this brief provides a good starting point for countries to think about the key questions relating to feed-in tariff design in their country context.

Country case study

The design and sustainability of renewable energy incentives: An economic analysis

Organization(s):World Bank

  • General resources

The World Bank’s The design and sustainability of renewable energy incentives: An economic analysis (see Key resources, this subsection) contains eight detailed case studies on Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Turkey, and Viet Nam.

Country case study

Designing smart green finance incentive schemes: The role of the public sector and development banks

Organization(s):E3G

  • General resources

E3G’s Designing smart green finance incentive schemes: The role of the public sector and development banks (see Key resources, this subsection) contains case studies in chapter 5.

Country case study

Derisking renewable energy investment: A framework to support policymakers in selecting public instruments to promote renewable energy investment in developing countries

Organization(s):UNDP

  • General resources

This publication presents four illustrative case studies for wind energy in Kenya, Mongolia, Panama, and South Africa.

Country case study

Public spending on climate change in Africa: Experiences from Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda

Organization(s):ODI

  • Managing national finance

The primary objective of this study is to understand the extent to which public expenditure responds to national climate change policy and the institutional demands required to implement it. For further information see 4.1.

Country case study

The design and sustainability of renewable energy incentives: An economic analysis

Organization(s):World Bank

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

This World Bank report includes detailed case studies on feed-in tariffs and auctions (e.g. the studies on Brazil, Indonesia, Tanzania, South Africa, and Vietnam). For further information on this report see 5.1.

Country case study

Assessing the missed benefits of countries’ national contributions: Quantifying potential co-benefits

Organization(s):NewClimate Institute

  • Impact and transformational change

This report assesses the co-benefits that a selection of countries could realize by achieving the emission reduction targets in their INDCs, and the additional co-benefits they could achieve through more ambitious targets. First it provides an overview of the general co-benefits that climate action may have, and how they could be used to incentivize further ambitious greenhouse gas reductions. It then provides illustrative results for the forgone or missed benefits that could have been achieved through action to meet a trajectory towards 100% renewables by 2050, compared with the current policies and INDCs. The countries/regions considered are Canada, Chile, China, EU, India, Japan, South Africa, and USA.

Country case study

Transformational change for low carbon and sustainable development

Organization(s):UNEP DTU

  • Impact and transformational change

This publication presents five case studies exploring success factors and indicators of transformational change in low carbon development across countries and sectors. The cases were selected in order to learn from the most successful examples of transformations that have happened, or that are planned, to achieve low carbon development. Two developed country and three developing country examples are explored.

Country case study

IRENA handbook on renewable energy Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)

Organization(s):IRENA

  • General resources

The final chapter of this handbook (in key resources, this subsection) contains detailed case studies of renewable energy NAMAs in Chile, Mexico, and Tunisia.

Country case study

The world’s carbon markets: A case study guide to emissions trading

Organization(s):EDF/ICE/IETA

  • Carbon pricing

This series presents 19 case studies of country carbon pricing schemes. Each includes a brief analysis of each program’s unique features, as well as the challenges faced in its development, implementation, and operation. They also outline the key design elements, important issues, and results to date.

Country case study

Investment incentives for renewable energy in Southeast Asia: Case study of Viet Nam

Organization(s):IISD

  • Taxes and tax incentives

In Vietnam, investment incentives are provided in several ways, including taxation (e.g. favorable income tax rates), low import duties and fees, loss transfer, and accelerated depreciation of assets. This report assesses investment incentives for renewable energy in Vietnam. It focuses on small hydro, wind, solar, biogas, and biomass resources. Section 4.4 of the report provides an overview of the different tax measures in Vietnam’s investment incentive framework that apply to all sectors, and section 4.6.2 presents preferential tax incentives for renewable energy companies in Vietnam. The impact of different incentives is discussed in section 5, and conclusions are presented in section 6.

Country case study

The South African Renewable Energy Independent Power Producers Procurement Programme (REIPPPP)—Lessons Learned

Organization(s):IPPPP

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

This presentation summarizes the rationale, design elements, results, and lessons learned from South Africa’s successful Renewable Energy Independent Power Producers Procurement Programme.

Country case study

Performance of renewable energy auctions: Experience in Brazil, China and India

Organization(s):World Bank

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

This paper considers the design and performance of auction mechanisms used to deploy renewable energy in three emerging economies: Brazil, China, and India. The analysis focuses on the countries’ experience in various dimensions, including price reductions, bidding dynamics, coordination with transmission planning, risk allocation strategies, and the issue of domestic content.

Country case study

Renewable energy auctions: Analysing 2016

Organization(s):IRENA

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

At least 67 countries had used auctions for renewable energy contracts by mid-2016, up from less than 10 in 2005. This report provides key updates on this crucial mechanism for price discovery and market development, by analysing the results of renewable energy auctions around the world. It provides an overview of the most recent auctions, analyses trends in auction prices and designs, and provides an in-depth overview of the interesting experiences and results. This analysis is meant to provide policy makers with a thorough understanding of the dynamics of auctions to support their design in particular, and to make informed decisions regarding the choice of policy instruments in general.

Country case study

GET-FiT Uganda Annual Report 2015

Organization(s):GET-FiT Uganda

  • Feed-in tariffs and auctions

Launched in May 2013, the GET FiT Uganda Program is designed to leverage private investment into renewable energy generation projects in the country. GET FiT is supported by several donors and the World Bank. The program targets the key barriers confronting investors looking at potential investments in small renewable energy projects (1–20 megawatts) in Uganda and aims to fast track up to 20 projects. Its main feature is a frontloaded results based premium payment designed to top up Uganda’s own renewable energy feed-in tariff. This report describes the main aspects of the program, early results achieved and future results expected, and how it is governed, monitored and funded.

Country case study

China Utility-based Energy Efficiency Finance Program (CHUEE)

Organization(s):IIP

  • Guarantees

The Institute for Industrial Productivity has also produced a case study on the CHUEE Program.

Country case study

China—Utility-based Energy Efficiency Finance Program (CHUEE)

Organization(s):World Bank/IFC

  • Guarantees

Established in 2006 by the International Finance Corporation and partners, the CHUEE Program provides risk sharing facilities (in the form of a guarantee) and technical assistance to support energy efficiency measures in China. The identified barriers to uptake are difficulties in marketing energy efficiency products and in accessing credit for energy efficiency projects. Access to credit is particularly difficult for small and medium-sized enterprises; in addition, commercial banks lack experience in sustainable financing. CHUEE helps to address these barriers.

Country case study

Publicly backed guarantees as policy instruments to promote clean energy

  • Guarantees

Publicly backed guarantees as policy instruments to promote clean energy and Guarantees for green markets: Potential and challenges (both in key resources, this subsection) contain country examples within case studies.

Country case study

Risk mitigation instruments for renewable energy in developing countries: A case study on hydropower in Africa

Organization(s):CPI

  • Risk mitigation

This case study examines the 250 megawatt Bujagali Hydropower Project in Uganda, which raised close to US$300 million in commercial loans and private equity, an unprecedented amount of private finance in a low income country. The study is explored from a project finance perspective. It is one of very few examples of large project finance structures simultaneously to use different risk mitigation instruments provided by the World Bank Group—a partial risk guarantee from the International Development Association; and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency’s political risk insurance. It offers an opportunity to analyze how these particular instruments interact, and how effective they are in driving private investment and reducing the cost of renewable power in developing countries with high investment risks and very little private investment. The study also examines how these instruments might be applied to drive private investment in other renewable energy projects in developing countries.

Country case study

Unlocking renewable energy investment: The role of risk mitigation and structured finance

Organization(s):IRENA

  • Risk mitigation

Unlocking renewable energy investment: The role of risk mitigation and structured finance (in key resources, this subsection) presents three case studies (offshore wind, geothermal, solar).

Country case study

UN Environment > Inquiry: Design of a sustainable financial system

Organization(s):UNEP

  • Sources of private finance

Other UNEP Inquiry country papers are available via this webpage, including those for Bangladesh, Colombia, Indonesia, and South Africa.

Country case study

Aligning Kenya’s financial system with inclusive green investment

Organization(s):UNEP Inquiry / IFC

  • Sources of private finance

This report explores Kenya’s financial system from a green investment perspective. It focuses on policy, structural, and investment innovations across the economy and financial sector that would increase capital flows that support sustainable development. Chapter 3 describes the different sources of capital in the Kenyan financial sector, covering the banking sector, retirement/pension funds, insurance funds, capital markets, private equity, savings and credit cooperatives, and foreign direct investment. For each source covered, the chapter explores market composition, policy and regulation, and barriers and potential solutions relating to green investment.

Country case study

Taxes and incentives for renewable energy

Organization(s):KPMG

  • General resources

While this report is principally designed to help companies and investors stay current with government policies and programs that support renewable energy, it does provide a useful summary of tax and nontax incentives in use in 31 countries, which may be helpful for developing country policymakers who wish to see which incentive measures are being used in other countries, as a starting point for comparative analysis. The table on p. 10 summarizes the different instruments used in these countries, and the following country pages provide brief information about the specific incentives.

 

Country case study

San Giorgio Group > Publications

Organization(s):CPI

  • General resources

CPI’s Publications webpage features case studies exploring best practice in the use of public finance to stimulate private investment. Numerous technologies and instruments are covered.

Country case study

Using private finance to accelerate geothermal deployment: Sarulla geothermal power plant, Indonesia

Organization(s):CPI

  • General resources

This case study analyzes the Sarulla geothermal power plant which, if successful, will be the largest single contract geothermal power plant project in the world, with a total capacity of 330 megawatts in 2018. The project has the highest private sector involvement of any geothermal project on a previously undeveloped field in Indonesia, thanks to substantial public support provided through a package of instruments: financing, guarantees, and a feed-in tariff.

Country case study

'Direct access' to climate finance: Lessons learned by national institutions

Organization(s):WRI

  • Direct access

The WRI report “Direct access” to climate finance: Lessons learned by national institutions (see key resources in this section) includes interviews with 15 entities with direct access, and presents different aspects of their experiences.

Country case study

Enhancing India’s readiness to access and deliver international climate finance

Organization(s):Ricardo-AEA

  • Climate finance readiness

This report identifies opportunities for India to strengthen its ability to effectively access and deliver increasingly large volumes of international climate finance. It examines the climate finance landscape, India’s experience in accessing climate finance, national policies to address climate change, and the effectiveness of India’s institutional management of climate change. The report uses a climate finance readiness framework that analyses these main topics to assess the strengths, barriers, and gaps in India’s ability to access international climate finance.

Country case study

What we do > Projects and programmes

Organization(s):GCF

  • The Green Climate Fund

These pages provide summary information about the focus, impact, funding, and key partners of approved Green Climate Fund projects, as well as providing links to documents such as the original funding proposals.

Country case study

Sixteen Asian country reports on climate public expenditure and institutional reviews (CPEIRs) and climate fiscal frameworks

Organization(s):UNDP

  • Managing national finance

A CPEIR is a systematic qualitative and quantitative analysis of a country’s public expenditures and how they relate to climate change. It can be a useful tool for national planning and budgeting, especially for identifying and tracking budget allocations that respond to climate change challenges. Since 2011, CPEIRs have been conducted in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. This website presents the CPEIR reports along with the climate fiscal framework (also known as climate change financing framework) reports for those countries that have completed them. A climate fiscal frameworks is a whole-of-government approach that engages all relevant stakeholders toward the mobilization and management of climate change finance, typically developed following the undertaking of a CPEIR.

Country case study

Mobilizing climate investment: The role of international climate finance in creating readiness for scaled-up low-carbon energy

Organization(s):WRI

  • Creating an enabling environment

Chapter 3 of this report (listed above) contains six case studies: energy efficiency in India and Thailand; wind power in South Africa and Mexico; solar water heaters in Tunisia; and geothermal power in Indonesia.

Country case study

Kenya’s National Climate Change Action Plan—Section E: Investment Climate for Climate Investment

Organization(s):Government of Kenya

  • Creating an enabling environment

The purpose of this section of Kenya’s National Climate Change Action Plan is to assess the broader enabling framework and environment for private sector low carbon investment in Kenya, so as to provide recommendations for improvement. It addresses the policy and regulatory environment for renewable energy and energy efficiency, and the existence of government incentives and barriers in that environment. It analyzes the issue of how to access finance and the relevant barriers, and looks at perceived and actual institutional strengths and weaknesses of businesses and financial institutions. Finally, it makes a series of recommendations for improvement, including on potential implementing agencies.