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Transport Toolkit

Developing strategies for clean, efficient transport

The Low Emission Transport Toolkit supports development planners, technical experts, and decision-makers at national and local levels to plan and implement low emission transport systems that support economic growth. This toolkit helps users navigate a variety of resources to identify the most effective tools to build and implement low emission development strategies (LEDS) for the transport sector.


Globally, the transport sector is responsible today for approximately 23% of total energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, and its emissions are increasing at a rate faster than that of any other sector. With countries and cities facing a rising need for transport services over the coming decades, governments have a unique opportunity to meet this demand and enable economic growth while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions through the implementation of comprehensive policies, behavioral change, and adoption of energy efficient technologies for the transport sector.

Showing 11-20 of 354 tools

GIZ sourcebook module 4e: Intelligent transport systems

  • Traffic management

Advanced technologies to assist in the management of traffic flow have been developing at a rapid pace for vehicles, buses, trains, and for the management of large public transport networks. Collectively, the various technologies are now known as intelligent transport systems (ITS). The purpose of this module is to assist decision makers and their advisers in developing cities understand what to consider to be able to make best use of ITS, what opportunities and challenges ITS may present, and how best to address the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities.

GIZ sourcebook module 4c: Two and three wheelers 

  • Fleet management

This module focuses on Asian developing cities, as the two- and three-wheeler vehicle fleets-and associated challenges- are far higher in Asia than in other parts of the developing world. The consideration of two- and three-wheelers is divided into two broad categories: transport system issues in cities with high shares of passenger trips undertaken by motorcycles and air quality issues.

GIZ sourcebook module 4b: Inspection and maintenance and roadworthiness

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Safety and emission improvements are the main challenges for an increasing vehicle fleet in developing countries. While Government can set standards for safe, clean and fuel efficient cars, only an efficient Inspection & Maintenance (I/M) scheme can maintain safety levels (e.g. brakes, lights, chassis) and low emissions (e.g. exhaust gas test, OBD check). This module discusses recommendations around the main aspects of introducing an efficient inspection & maintenance program.

GHGenius: A model for lifecycle analysis of transportation fuels

  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions

GHGenius focuses on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of current and future fuels for transportation applications. GHGenius can predict emissions for past, present and future years through to 2050 using historical data or correlations for changes in energy and process parameters with time that are stored in the model. Includes options for countries besides the US and Canada.

Greenhouse gas emission reductions from world biofuel production and use

  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions

The objective of this project is to estimate the global greenhouse gas emissions reduction achieved through the production and use of biofuels using lifecycle assessment models and studies.

Gender and transport

  • Governance and public awareness

At present, many projects in developing countries aim to encourage access for women to services and means of transport, and to improve the participation of women in transport-related jobs. The account taken of  gender in this way is justified by the fact that it enhances the effectiveness of actions in the transport sector and therefore has an increased impact on poverty reduction.

Future transport fuels: Report of the European Expert Group on Future Transport Fuels

  • Governance and public awareness

This report provides a summary of the contributions and the main issues discussed by the Future Transport Fuels Expert Group in 2010, with recommendations for action by the European Commission.

Funding urban public transport: Case study compendium

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

This compendium of case studies on urban public transport funding was developed as an input to the 2013 International Transport Forum Summit on Funding Transport (May 22-24, Leipzig). It serves to illustrate a variety of urban contexts, public transport services and funding mechanisms in a selection of International Transport Forum countries. It was jointly developed along with the International Association of Public Transport (UITP).

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

This comprehensive website provides information about vehicle fuel economy estimates, greenhouse gas emissions from passenger vehicles, benefits of improved fuel economy, as well as resources related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Users can access current and past Fuel Economy Guide publications.

Fuel choices for public transport: Environmental demands and efficiency

  • Fleet management

This position paper discusses various fuel options for public transport and provides related recommendations for agencies, operators, and vehicle and energy providers.

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Learn about the six key actions necessary to successfully implement a low emission development strategy for the transportation sector
image/svg+xml Evaluate system Implement & monitor Prioritize & plan Develop alternatives Assess opportunities Create baseline Key actions

Assess opportunities

Utilize the Avoid, Shift, Improve framework, to meet growing transport demand with less environmental impact. This approach widens the focus of transport development beyond conventional technologies to include solutions that consider the policies and behaviors driving the demand for transport.

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Evaluate system

Assess the current transport situation in your country or region by researching and evaluating existing plans, policies, practices, strategies and programs related to transport and land use.

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Create baseline

Track emissions and development improvements by establishing baselines that measure current and projected transport demand, supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and land use, assuming no low-emission actions are taken.

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Develop alternatives

Establish development objectives and policy measures, then integrate potential transport development opportunities into various alternative scenarios that would achieve those objectives. The alternative scenarios should be compared with the business as usual scenario in order to determine potential impact.

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Prioritize & plan

Prioritize alternative scenarios based on factors such as economic, environmental, and social benefits & costs, technical & institutional capacity & barriers, and greenhouse gas emission impacts. Once a particular pathway is prioritized, a specific transportation development plan can be adopted, consisting of implementable policies and systems that would result in optimal impacts such as increased employment, enhanced mobility, improved health/safety, expanded market access, reduced congestion, and avoided emissions.

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Implement & monitor

The action plan should define a timetable, roles and responsibilities, financial sources, performance metrics, outreach and partnership activities, and a plan for continuous monitoring and refinement. Proper MRV (monitor/measure, reporting, and verification) mechanisms should be established to ensure desired impact and continued improvement.

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Use the avoid, shift, improve framework to holistically design a sustainable low emission development strategy


Avoid trips taken and reduce travel demand by integrating land use planning, transport infrastructure planning, and transport demand management policies. This integration of planning and policies can result in convenient access to jobs, goods, and services while decreasing road vehicle usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions.

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Shift the way people travel and how freight is moved to more environmentally friendly modes of transport, such as non-motorized transport, mass transit, and car sharing, can reduce overall fuel use and emissions per capita.

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Improvements made to technologies under this framework include the: vehicle level, system level, and institutional level.

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Planning instruments aim to reduce the need for trips with personal vehicles. These instruments focus on promoting cities that are compact, connected and coordinated; a shift to public transport and non-motorized transport options:
  • Land use planning
  • Public transport and infrastructure
  • Non-motorized transport
  • Multimodal integration.

Regulatory instruments are actions that aim to reduce or restrict use of personal vehicles and influence the type of vehicles that should be used:
  • Traffic management
  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Economic instruments have two definitions in this toolkit. They can be methods to discourage use of certain forms of transport by putting a price on use (e.g. low emission zones). They can also be traditional and/or innovative financing opportunities to fund transport projects:
  • Financing

Information instruments are ‘soft’ measures that provide knowledge to decision-makers, technical experts and the general public. The objective is inform stakeholders about the impacts of transport options:
  • Governance and public awareness
  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions
  • Impact assessment
  • Fleet management.

Technology instruments aim to improve the effectiveness and energy efficiency of transport modes:
  • Shared mobility

Adopted from: GIZ Sourcebook 5e: Urban transport and climate change