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Transport Toolkit

Developing strategies for clean, efficient transport

The Low Emission Transport Toolkit supports development planners, technical experts, and decision-makers at national and local levels to plan and implement low emission transport systems that support economic growth. This toolkit helps users navigate a variety of resources to identify the most effective tools to build and implement low emission development strategies (LEDS) for the transport sector.


Globally, the transport sector is responsible today for approximately 23% of total energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, and its emissions are increasing at a rate faster than that of any other sector. With countries and cities facing a rising need for transport services over the coming decades, governments have a unique opportunity to meet this demand and enable economic growth while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions through the implementation of comprehensive policies, behavioral change, and adoption of energy efficient technologies for the transport sector.

Showing 21-30 of 354 tools

Fuel cell economic development plan hydrogen roadmap

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

This report assesses the market conditions for fuel cell and hydrogen technology and analyzes Connecticut’s hydrogen and fuel cell industry. The report also discusses challenges and proposed solutions for the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technology

Fuel cell buses in U.S. transit fleets: Current status 2016

  • Fleet management

This document includes results and experiences from several U.S. fuel cell electric bus evaluation projects.

Fuel cell buses U.S. transit fleets: Current Status 2014

  • Fleet management

This document includes results and experiences from several U.S. fuel cell electric bus evaluation projects.

Fuel cell buses in U.S. transit fleets: Current status 2012

  • Fleet management

This document includes results and experiences from several U.S. fuel cell electric bus evaluation projects.

Fuel cell buses in U.S. transit fleets: Current status 2010

  • Fleet management

This report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operation are presented in this report with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers of fuel cell buses and new and different designs of fuel cell buses.

Fuel cell bus program

  • Fleet management

Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 2011. It catalogs fuel cell electric bus research projects in the United States and describes their impact on commercialization of fuel cell power systems and electric propulsion for transit buses. Few barriers remain to reaching full commercialization of fuel cell electric buses. This report documents progress toward overcoming these barriers.

Fuel cell bus club

  • Fleet management

This demonstration of 33 fuel cell powered buses included development of hydrogen production and fueling infrastructure; and information exchange regarding bus experiences under different operating conditions.

From the Netherlands to America: Translating the world's best bikeway designs

  • Non-motorized transport

The Netherlands is widely recognized for having the highest cycling rates in the world. They do it because after the country started down the path toward car dependence, they made a conscious decision to change course. After many decades of deliberate policy to invest in cycling as a mode of transportation, the Netherlands has the most advanced bike infrastructure you'll ever see. This follows a group of city leaders from Chicago, Washington, DC and Miami on a study tour of the Netherlands, through the Bikes Belong Foundation's Bicycling Design Best Practices Program.

Focus on: Vehicle miles traveled fees

  • Traffic management

This paper discusses the concept of charging motorists on a per mile basis, which has gained some traction in recent years as a potential revenue mechanism to replace state and federal fuel taxes. Pilot projects to test vehicle miles traveled systems in many states are helping to define how they would work.

Fleet electrification roadmap

  • Fleet management

This resource provides insight and analysis on the economics of electric vehicles for fleet operators and demonstrates targeted opportunities in which innovative models can help make electric-drive vehicles a compelling opportunity for U.S. businesses and government.

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Learn about the six key actions necessary to successfully implement a low emission development strategy for the transportation sector
image/svg+xml Evaluate system Implement & monitor Prioritize & plan Develop alternatives Assess opportunities Create baseline Key actions

Assess opportunities

Utilize the Avoid, Shift, Improve framework, to meet growing transport demand with less environmental impact. This approach widens the focus of transport development beyond conventional technologies to include solutions that consider the policies and behaviors driving the demand for transport.

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Evaluate system

Assess the current transport situation in your country or region by researching and evaluating existing plans, policies, practices, strategies and programs related to transport and land use.

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Create baseline

Track emissions and development improvements by establishing baselines that measure current and projected transport demand, supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and land use, assuming no low-emission actions are taken.

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Develop alternatives

Establish development objectives and policy measures, then integrate potential transport development opportunities into various alternative scenarios that would achieve those objectives. The alternative scenarios should be compared with the business as usual scenario in order to determine potential impact.

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Prioritize & plan

Prioritize alternative scenarios based on factors such as economic, environmental, and social benefits & costs, technical & institutional capacity & barriers, and greenhouse gas emission impacts. Once a particular pathway is prioritized, a specific transportation development plan can be adopted, consisting of implementable policies and systems that would result in optimal impacts such as increased employment, enhanced mobility, improved health/safety, expanded market access, reduced congestion, and avoided emissions.

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Implement & monitor

The action plan should define a timetable, roles and responsibilities, financial sources, performance metrics, outreach and partnership activities, and a plan for continuous monitoring and refinement. Proper MRV (monitor/measure, reporting, and verification) mechanisms should be established to ensure desired impact and continued improvement.

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Use the avoid, shift, improve framework to holistically design a sustainable low emission development strategy


Avoid trips taken and reduce travel demand by integrating land use planning, transport infrastructure planning, and transport demand management policies. This integration of planning and policies can result in convenient access to jobs, goods, and services while decreasing road vehicle usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions.

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Shift the way people travel and how freight is moved to more environmentally friendly modes of transport, such as non-motorized transport, mass transit, and car sharing, can reduce overall fuel use and emissions per capita.

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Improvements made to technologies under this framework include the: vehicle level, system level, and institutional level.

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Planning instruments aim to reduce the need for trips with personal vehicles. These instruments focus on promoting cities that are compact, connected and coordinated; a shift to public transport and non-motorized transport options:
  • Land use planning
  • Public transport and infrastructure
  • Non-motorized transport
  • Multimodal integration.

Regulatory instruments are actions that aim to reduce or restrict use of personal vehicles and influence the type of vehicles that should be used:
  • Traffic management
  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Economic instruments have two definitions in this toolkit. They can be methods to discourage use of certain forms of transport by putting a price on use (e.g. low emission zones). They can also be traditional and/or innovative financing opportunities to fund transport projects:
  • Financing

Information instruments are ‘soft’ measures that provide knowledge to decision-makers, technical experts and the general public. The objective is inform stakeholders about the impacts of transport options:
  • Governance and public awareness
  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions
  • Impact assessment
  • Fleet management.

Technology instruments aim to improve the effectiveness and energy efficiency of transport modes:
  • Shared mobility

Adopted from: GIZ Sourcebook 5e: Urban transport and climate change