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Transport Toolkit

Developing strategies for clean, efficient transport

The Low Emission Transport Toolkit supports development planners, technical experts, and decision-makers at national and local levels to plan and implement low emission transport systems that support economic growth. This toolkit helps users navigate a variety of resources to identify the most effective tools to build and implement low emission development strategies (LEDS) for the transport sector.


Globally, the transport sector is responsible today for approximately 23% of total energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, and its emissions are increasing at a rate faster than that of any other sector. With countries and cities facing a rising need for transport services over the coming decades, governments have a unique opportunity to meet this demand and enable economic growth while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions through the implementation of comprehensive policies, behavioral change, and adoption of energy efficient technologies for the transport sector.

Showing 331-340 of 354 tools

GIZ sourcebook module 5f: Adapting urban transport to climate change 

  • Governance and public awareness

Ensuring a resilient urban transport system is necessary to avoid large and costly disruptions of urban life. As current weather impacts on transport will become more frequent and more extreme in the future, the number of days on which the transport system is confronted with extreme stressors will increase. If no adaptive measures are taken, more frequent disruptions and higher economic costs must be expected. This module is intended to raise awareness, describe the expected impacts of climate change on urban passenger transport, and provide an orientation on how to integrate climate proofing into urban transport planning and policy implementation. The module concludes with a discussion on synergies between adaptation and mitigation.

GIZ sourcebook module 5e: transport and climate change 

  • Fleet management

Greenhouse gas emissions from transport are a key contributor to global climate change. In addressing the impacts of climate change through sustainable transport instruments, cities are also able to benefit from a range of co-benefits. This module focuses on the sustainable transport instruments available that will help achieve both reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and co-benefits. The module will discuss how decision-makers and administrations may implement and finance these instruments.

GIZ sourcebook module 5d: The CDM in the transport sector 

  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions

The Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force on February 6th 2005,  established three innovative "mechanisms" designed to help countries with reduction commitments cut the cost of meeting their emission targets. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is related to projects realized in developing countries with GHG reductions sold to countries with reduction commitments. This module focuses on CDM and the GHG market; CDM transport projects; core elements of a transport methodology; and case studies in CDM.

Transit Oriented Development: Moving from rhetoric to reality

  • Land use planning

This paper offers an expanded definition of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) that focuses primarily on functions and outcomes, such as increased location efficiency and mobility, more housing and shopping choices, and enhanced value recapture and value return. It also makes recommendations on how projects can be improved, focusing on the roles that can be played by the five main actors in the development process

Transportation biofuels in the United States

  • Multimodal integration

While the biofuels wave seems to be gaining strength daily in the United States, there have also been many concerns about the implications of ramping up biofuels production. This report is intended to act as a tool to provide an overview of the current status of the major developments in the biofuels industry.

Electric vehicles: Charged with potential

  • Impact assessment

This study investigated the implications of the large-scale adoption of electric vehicles in Britain and the issues that need to be addressed if electric cars are to fulfill the expectation that they will maintain personal mobility in the face of diminishing and evermore expensive oil supplies and will contribute to the necessary limitation of CO2 emissions.

Electric vehicles in China: Emissions and health impacts

  • Impact assessment

E-bikes in China are the single largest adoption of alternative fuel vehicles in history, with more than 100 million e-bikes purchased in the past decade and vehicle ownership about 2× larger for e-bikes as for conventional cars; e-car sales, too, are rapidly growing. This paper compares emissions (CO2, PM2.5, NOX, HC) and environmental health impacts (primary PM2.5) from the use of conventional vehicles (CVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) in 34 major cities in China. The paper finds that for most cities, the net result is that primary PM2.5 environmental health impacts per passenger-km are greater for e-cars than for gasoline cars (3.6× on average), lower than for diesel cars (2.5× on average), and equal to diesel buses. In contrast, e-bikes yield lower environmental health impacts per passenger-km than the three CVs investigated: gasoline cars (2×), diesel cars (10×), and diesel buses (5×).

Transport regulation from theory to practice: General observations and a case study 

  • Governance and public awareness

The paper analyses a number of general transport and mode-specific issues that can provide indications for both setting up regulatory bodies and orienting their strategies. And includes a national case study is presented (Italy), where no specific regulatory institution for the transport sector has existed until now, but where some attempts at introducing regulatory principles have been made, albeit with little practical success.

Transport Research Laboratory

  • Governance and public awareness

The UK's Transport Research Laboratory is an internationally recognised centre of excellence providing world-class research, consultancy, testing and certification for all aspects of transport. The website provides publications, news, software and many other products and services related to transport

Transportation Energy Data Book

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency,
  • Public transport and infrastructure

Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Transportation Energy Data Book provides statistics and information characterizing transportation activity and energy use. The book presents relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs.

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Learn about the six key actions necessary to successfully implement a low emission development strategy for the transportation sector
image/svg+xml Evaluate system Implement & monitor Prioritize & plan Develop alternatives Assess opportunities Create baseline Key actions

Assess opportunities

Utilize the Avoid, Shift, Improve framework, to meet growing transport demand with less environmental impact. This approach widens the focus of transport development beyond conventional technologies to include solutions that consider the policies and behaviors driving the demand for transport.

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Evaluate system

Assess the current transport situation in your country or region by researching and evaluating existing plans, policies, practices, strategies and programs related to transport and land use.

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Create baseline

Track emissions and development improvements by establishing baselines that measure current and projected transport demand, supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and land use, assuming no low-emission actions are taken.

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Develop alternatives

Establish development objectives and policy measures, then integrate potential transport development opportunities into various alternative scenarios that would achieve those objectives. The alternative scenarios should be compared with the business as usual scenario in order to determine potential impact.

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Prioritize & plan

Prioritize alternative scenarios based on factors such as economic, environmental, and social benefits & costs, technical & institutional capacity & barriers, and greenhouse gas emission impacts. Once a particular pathway is prioritized, a specific transportation development plan can be adopted, consisting of implementable policies and systems that would result in optimal impacts such as increased employment, enhanced mobility, improved health/safety, expanded market access, reduced congestion, and avoided emissions.

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Implement & monitor

The action plan should define a timetable, roles and responsibilities, financial sources, performance metrics, outreach and partnership activities, and a plan for continuous monitoring and refinement. Proper MRV (monitor/measure, reporting, and verification) mechanisms should be established to ensure desired impact and continued improvement.

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Use the avoid, shift, improve framework to holistically design a sustainable low emission development strategy


Avoid trips taken and reduce travel demand by integrating land use planning, transport infrastructure planning, and transport demand management policies. This integration of planning and policies can result in convenient access to jobs, goods, and services while decreasing road vehicle usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions.

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Shift the way people travel and how freight is moved to more environmentally friendly modes of transport, such as non-motorized transport, mass transit, and car sharing, can reduce overall fuel use and emissions per capita.

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Improvements made to technologies under this framework include the: vehicle level, system level, and institutional level.

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Planning instruments aim to reduce the need for trips with personal vehicles. These instruments focus on promoting cities that are compact, connected and coordinated; a shift to public transport and non-motorized transport options:
  • Land use planning
  • Public transport and infrastructure
  • Non-motorized transport
  • Multimodal integration.

Regulatory instruments are actions that aim to reduce or restrict use of personal vehicles and influence the type of vehicles that should be used:
  • Traffic management
  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Economic instruments have two definitions in this toolkit. They can be methods to discourage use of certain forms of transport by putting a price on use (e.g. low emission zones). They can also be traditional and/or innovative financing opportunities to fund transport projects:
  • Financing

Information instruments are ‘soft’ measures that provide knowledge to decision-makers, technical experts and the general public. The objective is inform stakeholders about the impacts of transport options:
  • Governance and public awareness
  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions
  • Impact assessment
  • Fleet management.

Technology instruments aim to improve the effectiveness and energy efficiency of transport modes:
  • Shared mobility

Adopted from: GIZ Sourcebook 5e: Urban transport and climate change