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Transport Toolkit

Developing strategies for clean, efficient transport

The Low Emission Transport Toolkit supports development planners, technical experts, and decision-makers at national and local levels to plan and implement low emission transport systems that support economic growth. This toolkit helps users navigate a variety of resources to identify the most effective tools to build and implement low emission development strategies (LEDS) for the transport sector.


Globally, the transport sector is responsible today for approximately 23% of total energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, and its emissions are increasing at a rate faster than that of any other sector. With countries and cities facing a rising need for transport services over the coming decades, governments have a unique opportunity to meet this demand and enable economic growth while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions through the implementation of comprehensive policies, behavioral change, and adoption of energy efficient technologies for the transport sector.

Showing 1-10 of 89 tools

At the frontiers of cycling: Policy innovations in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany

  • Non-motorized transport

This article presents six detailed case studies of cycling in the Netherlands (Amsterdam and Groningen), Denmark (Copenhagen and Odense), and Germany (Berlin and Muenster). Except for Berlin, they represent the very best in coordinated policies and programs to make cycling safe, convenient, and attractive. Not only are cycling levels extraordinarily high in these cities, but virtually everyone cycles: women as well as men, the old and the young, the rich and the poor.

GIZ sourcebook module 5c: Noise and its abatement 

  • Impact assessment

Noise pollution in large developing cities is an insidious issue. In such noisy cities, many people seem to have become accustomed to the higher noise levels that underpin their daily activities. Noise has not only been linked to many serious health risks, such as hypertension and heart disease, but also to a deteriorating quality of life, by interfering with speech, performance, and ultimately, productivity. This module discusses the aspects of noise, sources of road noise, the nature and scale of impacts, and remedial measures to mitigate noise pollution.

GIZ sourcebook module 4f: Eco driving

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Buses in cities in developing countries are often old and fuel-intensive and are a major contributor to the negative environmental impacts in the urban areas. The driver of a vehicle is directly responsible for a more economical driving style. But he is not the only one in the chain of actors involved in transport to influence fuel consumption. Manufacturers, legislators, driving schools and vehicle holders- they all can influence the fuel consumption of vehicles in various ways. This module covers three main topics: defensive & economical driving; benefits of a more economical and defensive driving stylel and how to achieve this driving style.

GIZ sourcebook module 4e: Intelligent transport systems

  • Traffic management

Advanced technologies to assist in the management of traffic flow have been developing at a rapid pace for vehicles, buses, trains, and for the management of large public transport networks. Collectively, the various technologies are now known as intelligent transport systems (ITS). The purpose of this module is to assist decision makers and their advisers in developing cities understand what to consider to be able to make best use of ITS, what opportunities and challenges ITS may present, and how best to address the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities.

GIZ sourcebook module 4b: Inspection and maintenance and roadworthiness

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Safety and emission improvements are the main challenges for an increasing vehicle fleet in developing countries. While Government can set standards for safe, clean and fuel efficient cars, only an efficient Inspection & Maintenance (I/M) scheme can maintain safety levels (e.g. brakes, lights, chassis) and low emissions (e.g. exhaust gas test, OBD check). This module discusses recommendations around the main aspects of introducing an efficient inspection & maintenance program.

Gender and transport

  • Governance and public awareness

At present, many projects in developing countries aim to encourage access for women to services and means of transport, and to improve the participation of women in transport-related jobs. The account taken of  gender in this way is justified by the fact that it enhances the effectiveness of actions in the transport sector and therefore has an increased impact on poverty reduction.

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

This comprehensive website provides information about vehicle fuel economy estimates, greenhouse gas emissions from passenger vehicles, benefits of improved fuel economy, as well as resources related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Users can access current and past Fuel Economy Guide publications.

Fuel cell bus program

  • Fleet management

Prepared by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), this report summarizes the accomplishments of fuel-cell-transit-bus-related research and demonstrations projects supported by FTA through 2011. It catalogs fuel cell electric bus research projects in the United States and describes their impact on commercialization of fuel cell power systems and electric propulsion for transit buses. Few barriers remain to reaching full commercialization of fuel cell electric buses. This report documents progress toward overcoming these barriers.

Fuel cell bus club

  • Fleet management

This demonstration of 33 fuel cell powered buses included development of hydrogen production and fueling infrastructure; and information exchange regarding bus experiences under different operating conditions.

Focus on: Vehicle miles traveled fees

  • Traffic management

This paper discusses the concept of charging motorists on a per mile basis, which has gained some traction in recent years as a potential revenue mechanism to replace state and federal fuel taxes. Pilot projects to test vehicle miles traveled systems in many states are helping to define how they would work.

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Learn about the six key actions necessary to successfully implement a low emission development strategy for the transportation sector
image/svg+xml Evaluate system Implement & monitor Prioritize & plan Develop alternatives Assess opportunities Create baseline Key actions

Assess opportunities

Utilize the Avoid, Shift, Improve framework, to meet growing transport demand with less environmental impact. This approach widens the focus of transport development beyond conventional technologies to include solutions that consider the policies and behaviors driving the demand for transport.

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Evaluate system

Assess the current transport situation in your country or region by researching and evaluating existing plans, policies, practices, strategies and programs related to transport and land use.

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Create baseline

Track emissions and development improvements by establishing baselines that measure current and projected transport demand, supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and land use, assuming no low-emission actions are taken.

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Develop alternatives

Establish development objectives and policy measures, then integrate potential transport development opportunities into various alternative scenarios that would achieve those objectives. The alternative scenarios should be compared with the business as usual scenario in order to determine potential impact.

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Prioritize & plan

Prioritize alternative scenarios based on factors such as economic, environmental, and social benefits & costs, technical & institutional capacity & barriers, and greenhouse gas emission impacts. Once a particular pathway is prioritized, a specific transportation development plan can be adopted, consisting of implementable policies and systems that would result in optimal impacts such as increased employment, enhanced mobility, improved health/safety, expanded market access, reduced congestion, and avoided emissions.

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Implement & monitor

The action plan should define a timetable, roles and responsibilities, financial sources, performance metrics, outreach and partnership activities, and a plan for continuous monitoring and refinement. Proper MRV (monitor/measure, reporting, and verification) mechanisms should be established to ensure desired impact and continued improvement.

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Use the avoid, shift, improve framework to holistically design a sustainable low emission development strategy


Avoid trips taken and reduce travel demand by integrating land use planning, transport infrastructure planning, and transport demand management policies. This integration of planning and policies can result in convenient access to jobs, goods, and services while decreasing road vehicle usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions.

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Shift the way people travel and how freight is moved to more environmentally friendly modes of transport, such as non-motorized transport, mass transit, and car sharing, can reduce overall fuel use and emissions per capita.

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Improvements made to technologies under this framework include the: vehicle level, system level, and institutional level.

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Planning instruments aim to reduce the need for trips with personal vehicles. These instruments focus on promoting cities that are compact, connected and coordinated; a shift to public transport and non-motorized transport options:
  • Land use planning
  • Public transport and infrastructure
  • Non-motorized transport
  • Multimodal integration.

Regulatory instruments are actions that aim to reduce or restrict use of personal vehicles and influence the type of vehicles that should be used:
  • Traffic management
  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Economic instruments have two definitions in this toolkit. They can be methods to discourage use of certain forms of transport by putting a price on use (e.g. low emission zones). They can also be traditional and/or innovative financing opportunities to fund transport projects:
  • Financing

Information instruments are ‘soft’ measures that provide knowledge to decision-makers, technical experts and the general public. The objective is inform stakeholders about the impacts of transport options:
  • Governance and public awareness
  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions
  • Impact assessment
  • Fleet management.

Technology instruments aim to improve the effectiveness and energy efficiency of transport modes:
  • Shared mobility

Adopted from: GIZ Sourcebook 5e: Urban transport and climate change