Accessibility links

Transport Toolkit

Developing strategies for clean, efficient transport

The Low Emission Transport Toolkit supports development planners, technical experts, and decision-makers at national and local levels to plan and implement low emission transport systems that support economic growth. This toolkit helps users navigate a variety of resources to identify the most effective tools to build and implement low emission development strategies (LEDS) for the transport sector.


Globally, the transport sector is responsible today for approximately 23% of total energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, and its emissions are increasing at a rate faster than that of any other sector. With countries and cities facing a rising need for transport services over the coming decades, governments have a unique opportunity to meet this demand and enable economic growth while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions through the implementation of comprehensive policies, behavioral change, and adoption of energy efficient technologies for the transport sector.

Showing 1-10 of 53 tools

Funding urban public transport: Case study compendium

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

This compendium of case studies on urban public transport funding was developed as an input to the 2013 International Transport Forum Summit on Funding Transport (May 22-24, Leipzig). It serves to illustrate a variety of urban contexts, public transport services and funding mechanisms in a selection of International Transport Forum countries. It was jointly developed along with the International Association of Public Transport (UITP).

Fuel choices for public transport: Environmental demands and efficiency

  • Fleet management

This position paper discusses various fuel options for public transport and provides related recommendations for agencies, operators, and vehicle and energy providers.

Fleet electrification roadmap

  • Fleet management

This resource provides insight and analysis on the economics of electric vehicles for fleet operators and demonstrates targeted opportunities in which innovative models can help make electric-drive vehicles a compelling opportunity for U.S. businesses and government.

FHWA bicycle and pedestrian program

  • Non-motorized transport

The Bicycle & Pedestrian Program of the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Human Environment promotes bicycle and pedestrian transportation use, safety, and accessibility. The program issues guidance and is responsible for overseeing that requirements in legislation are understood and met by the States and other implementing agencies. On this site you can find information about the amount of federal funding spent on pedestrian and bicycle projects in your state, available federal funding sources, existing legislation, and guidance about accessible design.

Feebates: A legislative option to encourage continuous improvements to automobile efficiency

  • Impact assessment

The purpose of this paper is to provide information about feebates. This paper discusses: what a feebate is, why Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) believes a feebate is a valuable tool, recent analysis that RMI had done on feebates, what the current status of the feebate is, and how the feebate could interact with existing laws.

Europe’s parking u-turn: From accommodation to regulation

  • Traffic management

This paper reviews successful parking practices in European cities. In the cities reviewed here, parking policy has been reoriented around alternative social goals.

Energy efficiency in Russia: Untapped reserves

  • Impact assessment

Findings of the report provide policymakers with a comprehensive and practical analysis of energy efficiency in Russia: potential, benefits, barriers, and recommendations on how to fully tap into this resource. Energy use sectors address include transport and fuel production. The primary goal of this report is to help develop an action plan to reduce Russia’s energy intensity by 50% by 2020.

Development and demonstration of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG) blend transit buses

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

This report reviews a small-scale study of blending hydrogen with compressed natural gas (H/CNG) for use in internal combustion engine vehicles. The project demonstrated that with minor engine and vehicle modifications, a 20%/80% hydrogen/CNG blend can be used in revenue service fleets with similar operational performance as CNG.

Developing a sustainable autogas market: A guide for policymakers

  • Governance and public awareness

This report describes the emergence of autogas as an automotive fuel and trends in autogas markets. It also discusses the appropriate role of governments in responding to growing transport fuel concerns; reviews the range of policies and measures that are being used to encourage autogas; and sets forth case studies of successful autogas incentive programs in five countries.

China’s fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles: Rationale, policy process, and impacts

  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

This paper reviews the policymaking background of the Chinese fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles, assesses the various aspects of the standard’s impacts, examines the prospect of tightening the standards, and summarizes the complimentary policies that the Chinese government has adopted and contemplated for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing gasoline consumption.

Page 1 of 61 2 3 4 5 6
Learn about the six key actions necessary to successfully implement a low emission development strategy for the transportation sector
image/svg+xml Evaluate system Implement & monitor Prioritize & plan Develop alternatives Assess opportunities Create baseline Key actions

Assess opportunities

Utilize the Avoid, Shift, Improve framework, to meet growing transport demand with less environmental impact. This approach widens the focus of transport development beyond conventional technologies to include solutions that consider the policies and behaviors driving the demand for transport.

View related tools Next action

Evaluate system

Assess the current transport situation in your country or region by researching and evaluating existing plans, policies, practices, strategies and programs related to transport and land use.

View related tools Next action

Create baseline

Track emissions and development improvements by establishing baselines that measure current and projected transport demand, supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and land use, assuming no low-emission actions are taken.

View related tools Next action

Develop alternatives

Establish development objectives and policy measures, then integrate potential transport development opportunities into various alternative scenarios that would achieve those objectives. The alternative scenarios should be compared with the business as usual scenario in order to determine potential impact.

View related tools Next action

Prioritize & plan

Prioritize alternative scenarios based on factors such as economic, environmental, and social benefits & costs, technical & institutional capacity & barriers, and greenhouse gas emission impacts. Once a particular pathway is prioritized, a specific transportation development plan can be adopted, consisting of implementable policies and systems that would result in optimal impacts such as increased employment, enhanced mobility, improved health/safety, expanded market access, reduced congestion, and avoided emissions.

View related tools Next action

Implement & monitor

The action plan should define a timetable, roles and responsibilities, financial sources, performance metrics, outreach and partnership activities, and a plan for continuous monitoring and refinement. Proper MRV (monitor/measure, reporting, and verification) mechanisms should be established to ensure desired impact and continued improvement.

View related tools Next action

Use the avoid, shift, improve framework to holistically design a sustainable low emission development strategy


Avoid trips taken and reduce travel demand by integrating land use planning, transport infrastructure planning, and transport demand management policies. This integration of planning and policies can result in convenient access to jobs, goods, and services while decreasing road vehicle usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions.

View related tools


Shift the way people travel and how freight is moved to more environmentally friendly modes of transport, such as non-motorized transport, mass transit, and car sharing, can reduce overall fuel use and emissions per capita.

View related tools


Improvements made to technologies under this framework include the: vehicle level, system level, and institutional level.

View related tools
Planning instruments aim to reduce the need for trips with personal vehicles. These instruments focus on promoting cities that are compact, connected and coordinated; a shift to public transport and non-motorized transport options:
  • Land use planning
  • Public transport and infrastructure
  • Non-motorized transport
  • Multimodal integration.

Regulatory instruments are actions that aim to reduce or restrict use of personal vehicles and influence the type of vehicles that should be used:
  • Traffic management
  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Economic instruments have two definitions in this toolkit. They can be methods to discourage use of certain forms of transport by putting a price on use (e.g. low emission zones). They can also be traditional and/or innovative financing opportunities to fund transport projects:
  • Financing

Information instruments are ‘soft’ measures that provide knowledge to decision-makers, technical experts and the general public. The objective is inform stakeholders about the impacts of transport options:
  • Governance and public awareness
  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions
  • Impact assessment
  • Fleet management.

Technology instruments aim to improve the effectiveness and energy efficiency of transport modes:
  • Shared mobility

Adopted from: GIZ Sourcebook 5e: Urban transport and climate change