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Transport Toolkit

Developing strategies for clean, efficient transport

The Low Emission Transport Toolkit supports development planners, technical experts, and decision-makers at national and local levels to plan and implement low emission transport systems that support economic growth. This toolkit helps users navigate a variety of resources to identify the most effective tools to build and implement low emission development strategies (LEDS) for the transport sector.


Globally, the transport sector is responsible today for approximately 23% of total energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, and its emissions are increasing at a rate faster than that of any other sector. With countries and cities facing a rising need for transport services over the coming decades, governments have a unique opportunity to meet this demand and enable economic growth while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions through the implementation of comprehensive policies, behavioral change, and adoption of energy efficient technologies for the transport sector.

Showing 1-10 of 11 tools

Evaluating carshare benefits

  • Shared mobility

Carsharing is a vehicle rental service with short-term pricing located in residential areas that is intended to substitute for private vehicle ownership. This paper discusses various benefits to users and society from carsharing.

Carsharing's impact on household vehicle holdings: Results from a North American shared-use vehicle survey

  • Shared mobility

The authors establish a “before-and-after” analytical design with a focus on carsharing’s impacts on household vehicle holdings and the aggregate vehicle population. The results show that carsharing members reduce their vehicle holdings to a degree that is statistically significant.

Car sharing: Where and how it succeeds

  • Shared mobility

This report will be of interest to individuals, organizations, and communities who are interested in knowing more about car-sharing and to those This report will be of interest of who may want to introduce car sharing as a new mobility alternative. The report is a substantive resource with considerable information and useful tools for the development and implementation of car-sharing services.

Robin Chase on Zipcar and her next big idea

  • Shared mobility

The story of Zipcar - the biggest carsharing company in the world

Bike-sharing systems in Beijing, Shanghai and Hangzhou and their impact on travel behavior

  • Shared mobility

This paper examines three bike-sharing systems in China and investigates their impacts on travel behavior based on a questionnaire survey. It discusses the impacts on travel behavior in each city. It explains the reasons for customers’ preferences within the bike-sharing systems, and estimates the effect of substituting bicycles for other modes of travel.

Bikesharing in Europe, The Americas and Asia: Past, present and future

  • Shared mobility

This report discusses a range of existing bikesharing business models (e.g., advertising) and lessons learned including: 1) bicycle theft and vandalism; 2) bicycle redistribution; 3) information systems (e.g., real-time information); 4) insurance and liability concerns; and 5) pre-launch considerations.

Bike-share opportunities in New York City

  • Shared mobility

This report analyzes existing bike-share models and current demand to assess the potential for a New York City Bike-Share Program. An overview of potential funding options and recommendations for implementation, including suggested program size and phasing, bike-station siting, fees, safety and theft reduction, are also discussed. Case studies of five major bike-share programs are included.

Public bikesharing in North America: Early operator understanding

  • Shared mobility

Bikeshare programs account for 172,070 users and 5,238 bicycles and 44,352 users and 6,235 bicycles in the United States and Canada, respectively. This paper reviews early operator understanding of North American public bikesharing and discusses emerging trends for prospective program start-ups

Making car sharing and car clubs work: Good practice guide

  • Shared mobility

This guide is aimed at a wide variety of groups to provide help on the delivery of car sharing and car club schemes for specific organizations and communities. The guidance is supported by a detailed study report and full case study reports. This guide seeks to enhance existing guidance given in other best practice notes, particularly those related to travel plans.

Making car sharing and car clubs work: Case study summaries

  • Shared mobility

These case studies result from a study that examined best practices in car sharing and car clubs and appraised the successes and failures to date. The results of this study are incorporated into "Making Car Sharing and Car Clubs Work: Good Practice Guide."

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Learn about the six key actions necessary to successfully implement a low emission development strategy for the transportation sector
image/svg+xml Evaluate system Implement & monitor Prioritize & plan Develop alternatives Assess opportunities Create baseline Key actions

Assess opportunities

Utilize the Avoid, Shift, Improve framework, to meet growing transport demand with less environmental impact. This approach widens the focus of transport development beyond conventional technologies to include solutions that consider the policies and behaviors driving the demand for transport.

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Evaluate system

Assess the current transport situation in your country or region by researching and evaluating existing plans, policies, practices, strategies and programs related to transport and land use.

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Create baseline

Track emissions and development improvements by establishing baselines that measure current and projected transport demand, supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and land use, assuming no low-emission actions are taken.

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Develop alternatives

Establish development objectives and policy measures, then integrate potential transport development opportunities into various alternative scenarios that would achieve those objectives. The alternative scenarios should be compared with the business as usual scenario in order to determine potential impact.

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Prioritize & plan

Prioritize alternative scenarios based on factors such as economic, environmental, and social benefits & costs, technical & institutional capacity & barriers, and greenhouse gas emission impacts. Once a particular pathway is prioritized, a specific transportation development plan can be adopted, consisting of implementable policies and systems that would result in optimal impacts such as increased employment, enhanced mobility, improved health/safety, expanded market access, reduced congestion, and avoided emissions.

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Implement & monitor

The action plan should define a timetable, roles and responsibilities, financial sources, performance metrics, outreach and partnership activities, and a plan for continuous monitoring and refinement. Proper MRV (monitor/measure, reporting, and verification) mechanisms should be established to ensure desired impact and continued improvement.

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Use the avoid, shift, improve framework to holistically design a sustainable low emission development strategy


Avoid trips taken and reduce travel demand by integrating land use planning, transport infrastructure planning, and transport demand management policies. This integration of planning and policies can result in convenient access to jobs, goods, and services while decreasing road vehicle usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions.

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Shift the way people travel and how freight is moved to more environmentally friendly modes of transport, such as non-motorized transport, mass transit, and car sharing, can reduce overall fuel use and emissions per capita.

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Improvements made to technologies under this framework include the: vehicle level, system level, and institutional level.

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Planning instruments aim to reduce the need for trips with personal vehicles. These instruments focus on promoting cities that are compact, connected and coordinated; a shift to public transport and non-motorized transport options:
  • Land use planning
  • Public transport and infrastructure
  • Non-motorized transport
  • Multimodal integration.

Regulatory instruments are actions that aim to reduce or restrict use of personal vehicles and influence the type of vehicles that should be used:
  • Traffic management
  • Fuels and vehicle efficiency

Economic instruments have two definitions in this toolkit. They can be methods to discourage use of certain forms of transport by putting a price on use (e.g. low emission zones). They can also be traditional and/or innovative financing opportunities to fund transport projects:
  • Financing

Information instruments are ‘soft’ measures that provide knowledge to decision-makers, technical experts and the general public. The objective is inform stakeholders about the impacts of transport options:
  • Governance and public awareness
  • Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions
  • Impact assessment
  • Fleet management.

Technology instruments aim to improve the effectiveness and energy efficiency of transport modes:
  • Shared mobility

Adopted from: GIZ Sourcebook 5e: Urban transport and climate change