Selecting effective financial instruments to support action on climate change
This low emission development strategies (LEDS) Finance Resource Guide presents a curated selection of resources on a range of topics around finance for LEDS and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). It is designed to help LEDS practitioners find high-quality resources that meet their specific needs, avoiding time-consuming searches on the internet. It will be useful to individuals working on, or interested in, LEDS and NDC finance in both developed and developing countries.
- 1. Understanding the situation
- 1.1 Understanding current flows
- 1.2 Assessing financing needs
- 1.3 Assessing capacity
- 1.4 Identifying and overcoming barriers
- 2. Planning and coordinating
- 2.1 Institutions and governance
- 2.2 National finance strategies
- 2.3 Investment plans
- 2.4 National climate funds
- 2.5 Green investment banks
- 4. Using public finance
- 4.1 Managing national finance
- 4.2 International climate finance
- 4.3 Climate finance readiness
- 4.4 The Green Climate Fund
- 4.5 Direct access
- 5. Designing financial instruments
- 5.1 General resources
- 5.2 Sources of private finance
- 5.3 Risk mitigation
- 5.4 Guarantees
- 5.5 Feed-in tariffs and auctions
- 5.6 Taxes and tax incentives
- 5.7 Carbon pricing
6. Developing good projects
To achieve the targets outlined in NDCs and other LEDS plans, countries will need to develop and then implement a range of interventions—these are the building blocks that collectively will achieve the overall outcomes sought. To secure international financial support for these actions and to encourage the private sector to participate, countries will need to develop good quality projects that make sense to the private sector and that meet the standards of international funders. The resources in this section provide guidance on how to develop good quality projects, both in general terms and focusing on making them both impactful (e.g. meeting the Green Climate Fund’s requirement to achieve ‘paradigm shift’) and financeable. Most of the resources focus on NAMA projects, but will also be relevant for other kinds of project seeking international support, including from the Green Climate Fund. In many ways, this section is about how to package the concepts covered in preceding sections of this Finance resource guide into a specific intervention (or combination of interventions) that will achieve LEDS or NDC policy outcomes and, in doing so, attract finance from international public sources as well as leveraging private investment. There are strong links with sections 3, 4, and 5, all of which will normally feature in a NAMA or Green Climate Fund project.
Photo: Neil Palmer/CIAT
This reference manual and its accompanying quick start guide were produced to support developing countries in implementing their NDCs. It is aimed at national and subnational policymakers, development partners, and practitioners. The reference manual sets out specific activities that countries can undertake in five key areas of NDC implementation, of which one is finance. The finance chapter outlines 10 key activities as a comprehensive basis for an approach to mobilize finance for NDC implementation, and includes several relevant case studies. The activities covered are well aligned with the different sections of this resource guide. The Quick start guide and reference manual is also available as an online tool, enabling users to link finance to mitigation; adaptation; governance; and measuring, reporting, and verification.
This toolkit aims to help private sector entities understand the key considerations and to fulfill the Fund’s requirements when developing proposals for the Green Climate Fund. It was developed for Bangladesh, but nearly all of the content is also relevant to other countries. The guide covers the essential details of the Green Climate Fund, its project cycle, proposal template, and key project development requirements, and provides guidance on how to get started.
This guide, updated in 2016, aims to support developing countries in the NAMA development and implementation process by providing guidance and good practices on the key aspects of NAMAs, and provide insights on how NAMAs may support NDCs. The guide includes the policy framework; potential types of action; financing; institutional arrangements; the roles of different actors; and measuring, reporting, and verification procedures. It also provides guidance on best practice and other practical advice for those faced with the task of developing a NAMA, especially in the context of an NDC. While focused on NAMAs, much of the guidance will be relevant to the development of any ambitious mitigation project and the link to NDCs.